Call for Publications
India: Shadow WTO
Agricultural Domestic Support Notifications
In this study, we examined India's domestic support policies to understand
their classification and measurement for the purposes of official World
Trade Organization (WTO) notifications. We then employed the underlying
methods to prepare shadow notifications of India's domestic support for
1998-2005. Following that, we explored alternative support-definition
scenarios and their possible effects on shadow notifications. Preliminary
support estimates for 2006-2007 and a projection for 2015 are also
provided with a discussion on how the latest WTO (2008) ………….
Barriers to Trade in Higher Education Services in the Era of Globalisation
This paper highlights the issues
surrounding trade in education services in India. Concentrating on the
ease and difficulty of trade in education services through different modes
in India, it shows that the process of trade in education services through
World Trade Organisation modes 3 and 4 has just begun in India, whereas
mode 2 is still the most prevalent mode of trade in education services. A
field survey undertaken in this context also identifies some barriers to
movement of foreign students to India.
The WTO Doha
round impasse: Implications for Africa
The latest World Trade Organization
(WTO) negotiation round, launched in November 2001 in Doha, was seen as a
positive response to the terrorist attacks on the USA. The negotiations,
known as the ‘Development Round’, had the ultimate objectives of reducing
poverty and promoting development. Seven years later, the outlook is
bleak. The Doha talks were suspended in July 2008, with trade negotiators
increasingly lacking support from their governments. Future elections and
rising food and energy prices have exacerbated protectionist tendencies
A Positive Theory of WTO Adjudication
The positive theory of litigation predicts that under certain conditions
plaintiffs and defendants achieve an unremarkable and roughly equivalent
share of litigation success. This article, grounded in an empirical
analysis of WTO adjudication from 1995 through 2007, reveals a high
disparity between Complainant and Respondent success rates: Complainants
win roughly 90 percent of the disputes. This disparity transcends case
type, country identity, income level and other litigant-specific
characteristics. After analyzing and discarding standard ………..
China: Shadow WTO Agricultural Domestic Support
This paper reviews recent agricultural policy changes in China and
presents estimates of domestic support for the period 1996-2005. A set of
relevant alternative subsidy-definition scenarios and their effects on the
calculated levels of support are analyzed, and a projection of domestic
support through 2013 is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion
of new WTO rules that may be negotiated in the Doha Round and their
implications for China. Based on standard WTO subsidy calculation methods,
our results indicated that China's domestic support for the period ………
between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean: The partnership
Latin America seems to be managing to keep its feet dry in the midst
of a global economic storm. This demonstrates that Latin American
trade offers not only a favourable climate for European investment,
but also a timely political opportunity for the European Union (EU).
The EU would do well to improve the quality of its engagement with
the region, to take greater advantage of the growing consensus on
issues that face both regions.
Bilateral Free Trade Agreements: A Critical Assessment and WTO
Regulatory Reform Proposal
At this writing, most-favored-nation (MFN) principle
notwithstanding, every nation save Mongolia has entered into at
least one bilateral or regional free trade agreement. The European
Union, for example, is so heavily engaged in bilateral deals that it
has MFN trade relations with only seven countries. Hundreds of
bilaterals have been negotiated since the early 1990s. The apparent
failure of the Doha Round virtually guarantees their dominance of
international trade law and policy. This article reviews the history
of bilateral and regional free trade agreements ….
Emerging regional architecture in Asia
With a combined population of nearly half a billion and GDP of
over a trillion dollars, ASEAN countries provide a large market for
Indian companies. The conclusion of India-ASEAN FTA after four years
of negotiations in Singapore at the ASEAN Economic Ministers meeting
last week will pave the way for India to play its due role in
emerging broader regional architecture in Asia. India had begun to
engage ASEAN since 1992 as a part of the Look East Policy. Look East
was perhaps a response to the growing recognition of East Asia’s
potential to emerge as the centre of gravity with rapid growth
sustained over the past three decades ………
Some Arguments Concerning Promotion of Cross-Border Cooperation and
European Union Integration
With the process of EU integration at hand, cross-border cooperation
has become a top priority in East-Central Europe. In fact, there is
no viable alternative to integrated regional development. From the
perspective of advancing European integration process, the existence
of the appropriate legislative framework, economic and social
policies aimed at ensuring the three movement of persons, labor,
material and spiritual goods across the borders is of an utmost
importance. Another important argument for the elaboration and
implementation of integrated ……….
Dealing with the Proliferation of Bilateral Trade
Agreements: Consolidation, Multilateralization, Harmonization, or
Bilateral free trade agreements (BTAs) have been proliferating. The
outcome of this proliferation of often overlapping BTAs and plurilateral
free trade agreements is described as the spaghetti bowl effect or, in the
Asian region, the noodle bowl effect. This is costly and welfare-reducing.
How should this situation be remedied? This paper evaluates the various
options proposed in dealing with the spaghetti bowl. A general limitation
of these proposals is their tendency to group
all kinds of BTAs together and treat them as a homogeneous group.
Achieving the MDGs: The fundamentals
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent the most determined
effort in history to galvanise international action around a common set of
development targets (Box 1). Their success or failure will have immense
consequences, not only for the world’s poor, but also for the credibility
of collective action by the international community. The MDGs are about
basic economic and social rights for all, with clear targets to be reached
by the year 2015. They may, however, seem presumptuous to those working in
development, appearing disconnected ………..
Ending Aid Dependence
Developing countries reliant on aid want to escape from this dependence, and yet
they appear unable to do so. This book shows how the developing countries can
liberate themselves from the aid that pretends to be developmental but is not.
Exiting aid dependence should be at the top of the political agenda of all
countries. This timely book cautions countries of the South against endorsing
the Accra Action Agenda (AAA) offered by the OECD. If adopted, it would subject
the recipients to a discipline of collective control by the donors right down to
the village level.
How Effective are Food for Education Programs? A Critical
Assessment of the Evidence from Developing Countries
Food for education (FFE) programs, including meals served in school and
take-home rations conditional on school attendance, have recently received
renewed attention as a policy instrument for achieving the Millennium
Development Goals of universal primary education and the reduction of hunger in
developing countries. FFE programs attract children to school by providing
nutritious meals in exchange for school participation. If children are
undernourished, the programs may also boost learning and cognitive development
by improving attention spans and nutrition.
MDGs and the
environment: Are environmental institutions ‘fit for purpose’?
Millennium Development Goal 7 is, simply put: ‘to ensure environmental
sustainability’. Local efforts on environmental sustainability are linked
intimately to global commitments. Achieving this goal, therefore, depends
heavily on action at both the national and international level. There is a
growing recognition that institutions – agencies and other bodies working on
environment issues – matter in securing the linkages between these levels. The
role of the national government administration, in particular, is critical to
the delivery of environmental results.
Prices: Causes, Consequences and Responses
World prices of wheat, coarse grains (in particular corn), rice and oilseed
crops nearly doubled between 2005 and 2007 and continued to rise in early 2008.
These prices, along with those of meat, sugar and dairy products, are likely to
ease somewhat in the next 10 years, but are likely to stay well above the
average of the past decade. This price spike in agricultural commodities is due
to a combination of factors, including droughts in key grain-producing regions,
low stocks of cereals and oilseeds, increased used of feedstock ………..
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Views expressed in these articles and papers are those of the respective
authors and in no way reflect the official positions of CUTS and the
agencies supporting its projects.