Call for Publications
And WTO: Measures Against Expropriation
This paper is about Expropriation of foreign property, which has become
with the inflow of foreign investment all over. It examines the WTO
procedure as well, regarding Expropriation. In order to give a free
environment to investors, it is important to curb illegal expropriation
with the use of settled principles of international law and NAFTA rules
etc. One of the primary goals of a WTO agreement on investment should be
to provide strong and effective protection for investors against
nationalization, expropriation, and measures tantamount to expropriation.
Trade in Energy
Services: GATS and India
This paper examines India’s opportunities and constraints to trade in
energy services within the GATS framework. The study found that India has
the capability of exporting high-skilled manpower at competitive prices
but is facing various market access, discriminatory and regulatory
barriers in markets of export interest. With the entry of energy-
producing countries such as Saudi Arabia into the WTO, the Doha
negotiations provide an important platform to offensively push for
liberalization in this sector.
The World Must Go Beyond Doha
The recent G-20 summit communiqué included a commitment by
world leaders not to impose protectionist measures. The ink was barely dry
before a number of countries took measures to protect domestic companies.
Russia imposed a number of import tariffs. India slapped restrictions on
steel. France created a fund to protect French companies. The United
States and the European Union are contemplating state aid for the domestic
auto industry. Earlier, China had increased its value-added tax rebate for
exports and is now publicly worrying that the renminbi is, yes,
Indian Agriculture In
The Globalization Era – Position And Prospects
With a rich experience of green revolution of 1960s initiated by
technological breakthrough, much was expected from Indian Agriculture in
the following years. Then there was an almost lull period. The New
Economic Reforms of 1990s promised a period of resurgence, with a fast
growth of economy in general and agricultural sector in particular. But on
the contrary, the post WTO period has witnessed a sharp decline in
agricultural production. The agricultural sector is facing a crisis. Free
trade has not been free from problems. Farming and farming community are
waiting for a fair treatment even as many of them have lost interest or
Opening Up Of Services
The government is believed to have committed to the World Trade
Organisation (WTO) to further open up its services sector for foreign
services providers without assessing its impact on the domestic market.
Pakistan's permanent mission to the WTO has sent a draft offer to commerce
ministry for approval. In the year 2005, Pakistan made an initial offer
for liberalisation of nine out of 12 sectors. This has been followed up in
revised offers for remaining areas of the sector. The sectors which will
be reviewed for opening up include business services and communications,
construction/engineering, health and tourism, veterinary, education,
accounting and legal services.
Does Trade Integration Contribute to Peace?
This paper investigates the effect of trade integration on military
conflict. Our empirical analysis, based on a large panel data set of
290,040 country-pair observations from 1950 to 2000, confirms that
an increase in bilateral trade interdependence and global trade
openness significantly promotes peace. It also suggests that the
effect of trade openness varies depending on the geographical
proximity of countries. The peace-promotion effect of bilateral
trade integration is significantly higher for contiguous countries
that are likely to experience more conflicts.
India - Sri Lanka economic relations: A Case of CEPA
The bilateral economic and commercial relations between India and
Sri Lanka continued to remain strong and vibrant in 2008. Despite
the global economic downturn, the overall trade turnover for 2008 is
likely to remain around the same level as it was in 2007 at about US
3.2 billion. In terms of investments, too, India retained its
position as a leading foreign investor in Sri Lanka even while Sri
Lankan investments in India registered a remarkable growth. Besides,
India continued to make a significant contribution as a development
partner, Sri Lanka being the largest recipient of aid, grants and
concessional lines of credit in South Asia.
EPAs and Benchmarking Development
The Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) being negotiated between
the EU and ACP countries are widely acknowledged to pose a major
challenge for the ACP / African countries since they are essentially
free trade agreements based on reciprocal market liberalization. As
such, the issue of development benchmarks has been discussed often
as many actors from different quarters realize the need to
stringently monitor the implementation of EPAs, where these are
signed, and to put in place brakes on the liberalization process if
the desired development goals are not being attained.
International Trade in Used Vehicles: The Environmental Consequences
Previous studies of trade and the environment overwhelmingly focus
on how trade affects where goods are produced. However, trade also
affects where goods are consumed. In this paper we describe a model
of trade with durable goods and non‐homothetic preferences. In
autarky, used goods are relatively inexpensive in high‐income
countries and free trade causes these goods to be exported to
low‐income countries. We then evaluate the environmental
consequences of this pattern of trade using evidence from the North
American Free Trade Agreement.…….
Transport Infrastructure and Trade Facilitation in the
Greater Mekong Sub region
As trade is an important driver of growth and infrastructure is a
necessity for trade, infrastructure development has a key role to play in
economic development. This study aims to quantify the potential benefits
of the development of the economic transport corridors, along with the
implementation of the Cross-Border Transport Agreement (CBTA) in the
Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Some of the key linkages between upgraded
infrastructure, economic growth, and sectoral responses are explored using
a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework.
A Triple Call On Climate Change
The call to act is directed to all those in the field of international
development who do not currently work on climate change. Nobody can stand
aside from this issue. It requires the combined multi-sectoral and
multi-disciplinary attention of every one of us – urban and rural,
national and international, development and humanitarian. Our urgent
priority is to mainstream action on climate change. Attempts to mainstream
gender or poverty have shown us how difficult this can be. The lessons
from those experiences need to be learned. Why can’t we stand aside?
Poverty And Poverty Reduction In Sub-Saharan Africa: An
Overview Of The Issues
The problem of poverty and how to reduce it remains the most pressing dilemma in
the international development debate. More specifically, two questions are at
the heart of much of academic research and public policy for development,
namely: what is it that makes Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) the poorest region in the
world and what can be done to deliver the sustainable and broad-based economic
growth required to address this? This paper seeks to provide an introduction to
current debates on these two interrelated questions.
A Case Study of Aid Effectiveness in Kenya: Volatility and
Fragmentation of Foreign Aid, with a Focus on Health
In September 2000, 149 heads of state and government endorsed the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). With this endorsement they set themselves eight goals
to be reached by 2015 (from the 1990 base), foremost of which is to halve the
proportion of the world’s people who were absolutely poor. The MDGs provide a
departure from past approaches in addressing poverty. By focusing attention on a
core set of interrelated goals and measurable targets, it is now easier to track
progress and measure the impact of development interventions.
Working Poor And Vulnerable Employment To Increase Dramatically Due To Global
The global economic crisis is expected to lead to a dramatic increase in the
number of people joining the ranks of the unemployed, working poor and those in
vulnerable employment, the International Labour Office (ILO) says in its annual
Global Employment Trends report (GET) (Note 1). Based on new developments in the
labour market and depending on the timeliness and effectiveness of recovery
efforts, the report says global unemployment in 2009 could increase over 2007 by
a range of 18 million to 30 million workers, and more than 50 million if the
situation continues to deteriorate.
China and India:
Convergence in Economic Growth and Social Tensions?
Do the economic policies or the “business model” adopted by China and India
necessarily aggravate inequalities in income and wealth distribution, and thus
exacerbate social contradictions? While not providing a definitive answer, the
article examines the rising concentration of income and wealth, the trends in
poverty, employment and unemployment, the nature and extent of social unrest,
and how the rich are getting richer, aided by fiscal sops, and outlines a
feasible alternative centred on development with equity.
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Views expressed in these articles and papers are those of the respective
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